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Published on: 01/06/20

Turning the tide

This report first provides insight into the legal situation around the obligatory removal of structures and substrates placed in the North Sea through a law analysis. Subsequently, a stakeholder analysis assesses the perspectives of stakeholders on (permanent) artificial reefs. Third, the benefits of oyster reefs on the ecosystem are reviewed. Eventually, a multi-criteria analysis evaluates alternative reef materials. The analysis contributes to answering the research question in which ways artificial reef-building substrates can remain permanently on the seafloor of OWFs.

J. Zhou, I. Al Asyari, K. Bachmann, S. Mei, B. de Vries, S. Wang, F. Wouters

Wageningen University Research